#English_Grammar PUNCTUATION Marks and their use

#English_Grammar PUNCTUATION Marks and their use

#English_Grammar #PUNCTUATION

*Punctuation* (derived from the Latin punctum, a point) meas the right use of putting in points or stops in writing.

The following are the principal stops :

1) Full Stop or period ( . )

2) Comma ( , )

3) Colon   (   : )

4) Question Mark   ( ? )

5) Exclamation Mark ( ! )

Other marks in common use are the

★ Dash            ( _ )

★ Parentheses   ( )

★ Inverted Commas and Quotation Mark

1.Full_Stop   ( . )

The  full  stop  represents  the  greatest  pause  and  separation.  It  is  used  to  mark  the  end  of  a declarative or an Iimperative sentence; as,

▶  For Example :

★ Dear, patient, gentle,   Nell was dead.

The full stop can be used in abbreviations,   but they are often omitted in modern style.

★ M.A or MA

★ M.P or MP

★ U.N.O or UNO

2- Comma ( , )

The comma represents the shortest pause, and is used:

1) To separate a series of words in the same construction ; as,

▶  For Example:

★ England, France and Italy formed an alliance.

★ He lost lands, money, reputation and friends.

★ It was a long, dull and wearisome journey.

A Comma is generally not placed before the word preceded by and ; as,

2) To separate each pairs of words connected by and ; as,

▶  For Example:

★ We should be devout and humble,   cheerful and serene.

★ High and low, rich and poor, wise and foolish,   must all die.

3) After a Nominative absolute ; as,

★ This done, she returned to the old man with a lovely smile on her face.

★ The wind being favourable, the squadron sailed.

4) To mark off a Noun or phrase in Apposition ; as,

★ Paul, the apostle, was beheaded in the reign of Nero

★ Milton, the great English poet, was blind.

) To mark off words used in addressing people

★ Come into the garden, Maud

★ How are you, Mohan?

But when the words   are emphatic, we ought to use the note of Exclamation;   as,

★ Monster ! By thee my child’s devoured !

6)   To mark off two or more adverbs or adverbial phrases coming together ; as,

★ Then, at length , tardy justice was done to the memory of Oliver.

7) Before and after a participial phrase,    provided that the phrase might be expanded into a

sentence, and is not used in a merely qualifying sense; as,

★ Caeser, having   conquered his enemies, returned to.   Rome.

8) Before and after words phrases or clauses, let into the body of a sentence; as,

★ it is mind, after all, which does the work of the world.

★ His behavior, to say the least, was very rude.

★ He didn’t , however, gain his object.

9) To indicate the omission of a word, especially a verb ; as,

★ He will succeed ; you, never.

★He  was  a Brahmin  ;  She,  a Rajput.)  To  separate  short  co-ordinate  clauses  of  a compound

sentence ; as,

★ I came, I saw, I conquered.

★ The way was long, the wind was cold.

★ Men may come   and men may go, but I go on forever.

Where there is a conjunction the comma is   sometimes omitted ; as,

★ He Came and saw me.

11) To mark off a direct quotation form the rest of the sentence;   as,

★ “Exactly so, ” said Alice.

★ He said to his disciples, ” Watch and pray”.

★ “Go then, ” said the ant, “and   dance winter away.”

12) Before certain co-ordinate conjunctions ; as,

★ The act thus is t wisdom,   but folly.

13) To separate from the verb a long subject opening a sentence ; as,

★  The injustice of the sentence pronounced upon that great scientist and discoverer, is now evident to us all.

14) To separate a Noun clause- whether subject or object-preceding the verb ; as,

★ Whatever is, is right.

★How we are ever to get there, is the question.

15) To separate a clause that is not restrictive in meaning, but is co-ordinate with the principal

clause; as,

★ Sailors, who are generally superstitious, say it is unlucky to embark on a Friday.

16) To separate an adverbial clause from its principal clause ; as,

★ When I was a bachelor, I lived by myself.

★ If thou would not be happy, seek to please.

3. Semicolon ( ; )

The semicolon represents a pause of greater importance than that shown by the comma. It is used :

1) To separate the clauses of compound sentence, when they contain a comma; as,

★ He was a brave, large-hearted man, and we all honoured him.

2) To separate a series of loosely related causes; as,

★ Her court was pure ; her life serene;

★ God gave her peace ; her land reposed.

4.Colon   (   : )

The colon marks a still more complete pause than that expressed by the semi-colon. It is used

( Something with a dash after it)

1) To introduce a quotation ; as,

★ Bacon says : “Reading makes a full man, writing an exact man, speaking a ready man.”

2) Before enumeration, example,   etc ; as,

★ The principal parts of a verb in English are    : the present tense, the past tense, and the past participle.

3) Between sentences grammatically independent but closely connected in sense;

★ Study to acquire a habit of thinking : no study is more important.

5.Question_Mark ( ? )

The Question mark is used, instead of the full stop, after a direct question ; as,

★ Have you written your exercise?

★ If you prick us, do we not bleed?

★ And if you wrong us, shall we not have revenge?

★ If you trickle us, do we not laugh?

But Question Mark is not used after an indirect question ; as,

★ He asked me whether I had written my exercise.

6.Exclamation_Mark   ( ! )

The Exclamation mark  is  used after  interjection and after  phrases  and sentences  expressing sudden emotion or wish ; as,

★ Alas! Oh dear !

★ What a terrible fire this is!

★ O, what a fall was there, my countryman ! Long live the king !

When the interjection O is placed before the Nominative of Address, the Exclamation Mark, if

employed at all, comes after the noun ; or it may be placed at the end of the sentence; as,

★ O father ! I hear the sound of guns.

★ O Hamlet, speak no more!

7.Inverted_Commas   ( ” ” )

Inverted commas are used to enclose the exact words of a speaker,   or a quotation; as,

★ ” I would rather die, ” he exclaimed, ” than join the oppressors of my country. “

★  Babar is said by Elphinstone to have been ” the most admirable prince that ever reigned in

Asia.”

If a quotation occurs within a quotation, it is marked by single inverted Commas; as,

★ ” You might as well say,” added the March Hare, “that ‘I like what I get is the same thing as I get what I like.”

8.Dash ( _ )

The Dash is used:

1) To indicate an abrupt stop or change of thought ; as,

★ If my husband were alive_but why lament the past?

2) To resume a scattered subject; as,

★ Friends,   Companions, relatives_All deserved him.

9.Hyphen ( – )

The Hyphen – a shorter line than the Dash – is used to connect the parts of a compound words ; as,

★ Passer-by

★ man-of-war

★ Jack-of-all-trades.

It is also used to connect parts of a word divided at the end of a line.

*Hyphen End*

10.Parentheses* (   )

Parentheses  or  Double  Dashes  are  used  to  separate  from  the  main  parts  of  the  sentence  a phrase or clause which doesn’t grammatically belong to it; as,

11.Apostrophe (   ‘ )

The Apostrophe is used:

1) To show the omission of a letter or letters; as,

★Don’t,   e’er , I’ve.

2) In the Genitive Case of Nouns.

3) To form the plural of letters and figures.

★ Dot your i’s and cross your t’s.

★ Add two 5’s and four 2’s. Copied.

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